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Abduction and related offences
Acts that unlawfully deprive another person of their freedom of movement, that are against that person's will or against the will of any parent, guardian or other person having lawful custody or care of that person.
- False imprisonment
- Slavery and sexual servitude offences
Affected family member
An 'affected family member' is the individual who is deemed to be affected by events occurring during the family incident. Where an affected family member has been in a family incident with more than one other party, they will be counted for each involvement.
The age of the alleged offender, victim, affected family member and other party represents the age the individual was on the date their record was created in LEAP (Law Enforcement Assistance Program).
Alleged offender incident
An alleged offender incident is an incident involving one or more offences to which an individual, business or organisation has been linked as an alleged offender.
For the purposes of reporting crime statistics, an alleged offender incident:
- involves only one offender (where two individuals have participated in the same incident two alleged offender incidents will be recorded)
- can involve one or more victims
- can involve offences that occur over a period of time but have been processed by Victoria Police as the same incident.
There may be multiple incidents within the reference period that involve the same individual, business or organisation as an offender.
Where there were multiple offences recorded within the one incident, the incident is assigned an offence category of the most serious offence in the incident for statistical purposes, known as the principal offence.
Alleged offender incident investigation status
The investigation status is the status indicating how an alleged offender has been dealt with by Victoria Police at the time the data was extracted from LEAP. The investigation status of an alleged offender incident is derived from the principal offence. This variable is captured at a point in time and is subject to change.
For the purposes of reporting, Alleged offender incident investigation statuses include:
- Caution/official warning
- Intent to Summons
Alleged offender incidents related to a family incident
Alleged offender incidents refer to those incidents that are linked to offences recorded at the time of a family incident.
Alleged offender rate
Alleged offender rates per 100,000 population are calculated using the alleged offender incident count for the reference period and the most recent Estimated Resident Population (ERP). The alleged offender rate is calculated using the following formula:
(Alleged offender incident count/ERP count) *100,000
For more information on the ERPs used to calculate alleged offender rates please see the Explanatory notes.
Intentionally and without lawful excuse destroying or damaging property by fire and intentionally or recklessly causing a bushfire.
- Cause damage by fire
- Cause a bushfire
- Other fire related offences
Assault and related offences
The direct (and immediate/confrontational) infliction of force, injury or violence upon a person or a group of people.
- Serious assault
- Assault police, emergency services or other authorised officer
- Common assault
Blackmail and extortion
The unlawful demanding of money, property, or any other benefit from another person, accompanied by the threat of coercive measures if the demand is not met. Coercive measures may include divulging information about a person, or the use and/or threatened use of force or violence if the demand is not met.
Breaches of orders
An act or omission breaching the conditions of a justice order. This includes breaches of family violence orders, intervention orders, bail conditions and other orders.
- Breach of family violence order
- Breach of intervention order
- Breach of bail conditions
- Breaches of other orders
The offering, giving or accepting of a bribe involving a government official whilst exercising his or her official authority.
- Bribery of officials
Burglary/Break and enter
The unlawful entry of a building or structure with the intent to commit an offence, where the entry is either forced or unforced.
- Aggravated burglary
- Non-aggravated burglary
The charge status indicates when a charge has been laid by Victoria Police at the time these data were extracted from the LEAP database. CSA output categories for this variable include:
- Charges Laid
- No Charges Laid
In the event that no charges have been recorded the investigation status determines whether the incident is categorised as ‘unsolved’ or ‘no charges laid’. The ‘no charges laid’ category represents all investigation statuses other than ‘unsolved’. Both charge and investigation statuses represent information at a point in time and are subject to change.
For more information, please refer to Investigation status.
A criminal event that may include multiple offences, alleged offenders and/or victims, is recorded on the LEAP database on a single date and as occurring at one location.
Cultivate or manufacture drugs
Cultivating or manufacturing of drugs or other substances prohibited under legislation.
- Cultivate drugs
- Manufacture drugs
- Possess drug manufacturing equipment or precursor
Dangerous or negligent acts endangering people
Dangerous or negligent acts which, though not intended to cause harm, actually or potentially result in injury to oneself or another person.
- Dangerous driving
- Neglect or ill-treatment of people
- Throw or discharge object endangering people
- Other dangerous or negligent acts endangering people
Offences involving a dishonest act or omission carried out with the purpose of deceiving to obtain a benefit or avoid a disbenefit.
- Forgery and counterfeiting
- Possess equipment to make false instrument
- Obtain benefit by deception
- State false information
- Deceptive business practices
- Professional malpractice and misrepresentation
- Other deception offences
Disorderly and offensive conduct
Offences involving personal conduct that is disorderly, indicative of criminal intent or is deemed offensive to members of the public.
- Riot and affray
- Drunk and disorderly in public
- Offensive conduct
- Offensive language
- Criminal intent
- Disorderly conduct
Drug dealing and trafficking
Dealing and trafficking of drugs or other substances prohibited under legislation.
- Drug dealing
- Drug trafficking
Drug use and possession
Use and possession of drugs or other substances prohibited under legislation.
- Drug use
- Drug possession
An incident attended by Victoria Police where a Risk Assessment and Risk Management Report (also known as an L17 form) was completed. The report is completed when family violence incidents, interfamilial-related sexual offences, and child abuse are reported to police.
For the purposes of CSA statistics a family incident may involve one or more affected family members and/or one or more other parties.
Family incident flag
A family incident flag is attached to any offence arising from an incident where Victoria Police completed a Risk Assessment and Risk Management Report (L17 form). The family incident flag allows the identification of offences, offender incidents and victim reports that are related to a family incident.
Family incident rate
Family incident rates per 100,000 population are calculated using the number of family incidents for the period and the most recent Estimated Resident Population (ERP). The family incident rate is calculated using the following formula:
(Family incident count/ERP count) *100,000
For more information on the ERPs used to calculate family incident rates please see the Explanatory notes.
Family violence safety notice
A family violence safety notice (FVSN) is a notice that can be issued immediately by Victoria police to protect an affected family member before an intervention order application is heard in court.
Homicide and related offences
Unlawfully kill, attempt or conspire to unlawfully kill, or kill another person as a result of culpable, reckless or negligent act.
- Attempted murder
- Accessory or conspiracy to murder
- Driving causing death
Intent to summons
Intent to summons represents a pending investigation status on an offence or offender incident where a final legal action has not yet taken place. It links offenders who may be charged with an offence in the future, however further investigation and approval or evidence is required before these are completed by Victoria Police. Therefore the number of offences and offender incidents with an "intent to summons" investigation status may change over time.
Investigation status indicates how the offences has been dealt with by Victoria Police at the time data was extracted from the LEAP database. This status represents information at a point in time and is subject to change.
CSA output categories include:
- Caution/Official warning
- Intent to Summons
Other includes: Penalty infringement notice, caution not authorised, complaint withdrawn, notice to appear, no offence disclosed, not authorised, offender processed, warrant issued, summons not authorised, presentment and other statuses.
An investigation status that is not authorised is a valid outcome, this is where a crime has occurred but the investigation, at the time, does not have enough information to proceed.
For more information, please refer to Charge status.
Justice institution or immigration facility
The category 'justice institution or immigration facility' includes, prisons, youth justice facilities and immigration detention centres. Further information regarding exclusions is available in the explanatory notes.
An act or omission that is deemed to be prejudicial to the effective administration of justice procedures.
- Escape custody
- Fail to appear
- Resist or hinder officer
An L17 form refers to the Victoria Police Risk Assessment and Management Report that Victoria Police are required to complete after they have attended a family incident. The report is completed when family violence incidents, interfamilial-related sexual offences, and child abuse are reported to police.
Local Government Area
A Local Government Area (LGA) is a geographical area under the responsibility of an incorporated local government council. See the Geographic classification for more information.
The location or place where the offence took place as recorded by Victoria Police. There are three main location types; Residential, Community and Other. These types are further broken down into subdivisions, which show an intermediate level of information, and further into groups, which show a finer level of detail. For more information please see the Location type classification.
All other offences not elsewhere classified.
- Environmental offences
- Public health and safety offences
- Cruelty to animals
- Dangerous substance offences
- Other miscellaneous offences
Any criminal act or omission by a person or organisation for which a penalty could be imposed by the Victorian legal system.
For the purposes of CSA statistics, an offence is counted and included in the data where it:
- occurred in Victoria;
- was reported to Victoria Police; and,
- was first recorded in LEAP within the reference period.
See our Explanatory notes for more information regarding the scope of our data.
Offence investigation status
The current status on the progress of the apprehension and/or processing of an alleged offender for the given offence as at the date the data is extracted. If no status is known at the time data is taken from LEAP, the status of investigation will be presented as unsolved.
Offence rates per 100,000 population are calculated using the offence count for the reference period and the most recent Estimated Resident Population (ERP). The offence rate is calculated using the following formula:
(Offence count/ERP count) *100,000
For more information on the ERPs used to calculate offence rates please see the Explanatory notes.
Offences related to a family incident
Offences relating to a family incident refer to those offences that have been linked to a family incident by Victoria Police.
Other drug offences
Drug offences not elsewhere classified as Drug dealing and trafficking, Cultivate or manufacture drugs or Drug use and possession.
Other government regulation offences
Offences regulated by government not including driving or transport regulation offences.
- Betting and gaming offences
- Commercial regulation offences
- Liquor and tobacco licensing offences
- Pornography and censorship offences
- Intellectual property offences
- Prostitution offences
- Other government regulation offences
The other individual involved in a family incident is referred to as the 'other party'. The other party could be a current partner, former partner or a family member. Where the other party is involved with multiple affected family members, they will be counted for each involvement.
A Police Region is a geographical area defined by Victoria Police for operational purposes. There are 4 regions across Victoria each contains a number of Police Service Areas. For more information please see the Geographic classification.
Police Service Area
A Police Service Area (PSA) is a geographical area defined by Victoria Police for operational purposes. There are 54 PSAs across Victoria and they consist of 1 or more Local Government Area (LGA). The CSA generally produces statistics at the more detailed LGA level however, data can be aggregated to PSAs from LGAs. For more information please see the Geographic classification.
Principal offence is the offence type determined by the CSA offence index as the most serious offence type committed within an incident. For more information on the offence index please see the Explanatory notes.
The wilful and unlawful destruction, damage or defacement of public or private property.
- Criminal damage
- Other property damage offences
Public nuisance offences
Acts involving the contravention of public order and harmony.
- Privacy offences
- Defamation and libel
- Improper movement on public or private space
- Other public nuisance offences
Public security offences
An act or omission that is deemed to be prejudicial to the effective carrying out of government operations specifically concerned with maintaining government security.
- Immigration offences
- Terrorism offences
- Other public security offences
Regulatory driving offences
Offences relating to vehicles and most forms of traffic, including offences pertaining to the licensing, registration, roadworthiness or use of vehicles and bicycle offences.
- Drink driving
- Drug driving
- Speeding offences
- Parking offences
- Licensing offences
- Registration and roadworthiness offences
- Other regulatory driving offences
Relationship of Victim to Offender
The relationship of victim to offender refers to the relationship the victim reports between themselves and their alleged offender at the time of the offence.
For the purposes of reporting, the relationship can be:
- Current partner
- Former partner
- Family member
- Non-family member
- Not known to victim
- Not recorded
Repeat offending is defined as those people who have been linked to more than one criminal incident within a 12-month financial year reference period. People who have been alleged offenders across financial year reference periods will be counted in each of the reference periods, therefore the repeat offending counts in this publication do not show repeat offending over a longer period of time.
Repeat victimisation is defined as those people who had more than one victim report within a 12 month financial year reference period. People who have been victimised across more than one financial year reference period will be counted in each of the reference periods that they reported being a victim. Consequently, the repeat victimisation counts in this publication do not show repeat victimisation over a longer period of time.
The unlawful taking of property, with intent to permanently deprive the owner of the property, from the immediate possession, control, custody or care of a person, accompanied by the use, and/or threatened use, of immediate force or violence.
Acts, or intent of acts, of a sexual nature against another person, which are non-consensual or where consent is proscribed (i.e. the person is legally deemed incapable of giving consent because of youth or temporary/permanent incapacity).
- Indecent assault
- Sexual offences against children
- Other sexual offences
Stalking, harassment and threatening behaviour
Acts intended to cause physical or mental harm, or arouse apprehension or fear through a repeated course of unreasonable conduct. This includes actions that are intended to harass, threaten or invade the privacy of an individual.
- Harassment and private nuisance
- Threatening behaviour
The unlawful taking or obtaining of money or goods, not involving the use of force, threat of force or violence, coercion or deception, with the intent to permanently or temporarily deprive the owner of the use of the money or goods, or the receiving or handling of money or goods obtained unlawfully.
- Motor vehicle theft
- Steal from a motor vehicle
- Steal from a retail store
- Theft of a bicycle
- Receiving or handling stolen goods
- Fare evasion
- Other theft
Transport regulation offences
Offences relating to breaches of transport regulations.
- Public transport regulations offences
- Aviation regulations offences
- Maritime regulations offences
- Pedestrian offences
- Other transport regulations offences
Trend test - 24 month
The trend test serves as a guide to highlight changes that are statistically significant. The 24 month trend test uses the Kendall's Rank Order Correlation statistical test (or Kendall's tau-b) to determine whether a series is trending upwards, downwards or is stable. For more information on the 24 month trend test please see the Explanatory notes.
Victoria is made up of 79 Local Government Areas (LGAs), in addition to the LGAs there are also small islands (administered by the state) and ski resorts (administered by management boards) which are unincorporated.
Unique alleged offender
A unique alleged offender is defined as a person who has been involved in one or more alleged offender incidents within a reference period. One unique alleged offender may be involved in more than one offender incident during the reference period, but will have a count of 1 in the data presented in this section. If there are multiple unique alleged offenders related to a criminal event, each unique offender will be counted once in the published figures.
A unique victim is defined as a person who has had one or more victim report recorded by Victoria Police within the reference period. One unique victim may have more than one victim report recorded during the reference period, but will have a count of 1 in the data presented in this section. If there are multiple unique victims recorded against a criminal event, each unique victim will be counted once in the published figures.
Victimisation rates per 100,000 population are calculated using the victim report count for the reference period and the most recent Estimated Resident Population (ERP). The victimisation rate is calculated using the following formula:
(Victim report count/ERP count) *100,000
For more information on the ERPs used to calculate victimisation rates please see the Explanatory notes.
A victim report is counted when an individual, business or organisation reports to Victoria Police that they have been a victim of one or more criminal offences.
For the purposes of reporting crime statistics, a victim report;
- involves only one victim (where two individuals are victimised in the same incident, two victim reports will be recorded)
- can involve one or more offender
- can involve offences that occur over a period of time but have been processed by Victoria Police as the same report.
An individual, business or organisation can be counted as a victim more than once within the reference period, if they have made more than one separate report to Victoria Police.
Where there were multiple offences recorded within the one victim report, the report is represented for statistical purposes by an assigned offence category of the most serious offence. This is known as the principal offence.
If there are multiple victims related to a criminal event, each will have their victim report counted once in the published figures.
Victim reports related to a family incident
Victim reports relating to a family incident refer to those reports that are linked to offences recorded at the time of a family incident.
Victim type defines whether the victim linked to a victim report is a person or organisation.
Victoria Police Risk Assessment and Management Report
A Victoria Police Risk Assessment and Management Report, also known as an L17 form, is a report that Victoria Police are required to complete after they have attended a family incident. The report is completed when family violence incidents, interfamilial-related sexual offences, and child abuse are reported to police.
Weapons and explosives offences
Offences involving prohibited or regulated weapons and explosives.
- Firearms offences
- Prohibited and controlled weapons offences
- Explosives offences
A youth offender is an alleged offender between the age of 10 and 17 years at the time they were linked to a recorded offence in LEAP (Law Enforcement Assistance Program).